Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of sprinkling irrigation in orchard.
Sprinkler irrigation, also known as artificial rainfall, is a semi-automatic irrigation method that uses sprinkler irrigation equipment to disperse water under high pressure through nozzles into small droplets that are sprayed into the air and landed on the ground. Although the technology is good, it has its shortcomings and limitations. This article gives a brief introduction to the advantages and disadvantages of sprinkling orchards.
The main advantages of sprinkler irrigation are as follows:
1. Basically, no deep leakage and surface runoff are generated, which can save more than 20% of water, and the water saving effect is remarkable, easy to control, and the water utilization rate can reach 80%.
2, uniform irrigation, soil is not squashed, reduce the damage to the soil structure, can maintain the loose state of the original soil, to avoid secondary salinization of soil caused by excessive irrigation.
3, can adjust the microclimate of the orchard, can wash the surface of the plant dust, reduce the damage of low temperature, high temperature, dry hot wind on the orchard, improve the field microclimate and agro-ecological environment.
4, labor saving, high work efficiency, easy to work in the field machinery, but also combined with spray fertilizer, spray.
5. The requirements for leveling the land are not high, and the terrain with complex terrain can also be used, which is applicable to various terrains.
Sprinkler irrigation also has certain shortcomings and limitations, mainly in the following aspects:
1. Higher investment Compared with ground irrigation, sprinkler irrigation investment is higher. At present, semi-fixed sprinkler irrigation does not count power transmission and artificial miscellaneous charges, generally 300~500 yuan per mu, including 500~800 yuan. Fixed sprinkler irrigation is even higher, some up to 1000 acres.
2. Sprinkler irrigation is affected by wind and air humidity. When the wind speed is above 5.5~7.9 seconds, that is, above the fourth grade wind, the water droplets can be blown off, the irrigation uniformity is greatly reduced, and the drift loss is also increased. When the air humidity is too low, the evaporation loss increases. When the wind speed is less than 4.5m/s (third wind), the evaporation drift loss is less than 10%; when the wind speed is increased to 9m/s, the loss is 30%. China has passed the unified measurement in 8 provinces (cities) in Ningxia, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Henan, Hubei, Beijing, Fujian, Xinjiang, etc., with relative humidity of 30%~62% and wind speed of 0.24~6.39m/s. Spray water loss is 7% to 28%.
3. Large energy consumption. In order to make the nozzle run and achieve uniform irrigation, a certain pressure must be given to the water. Except for the self-pressure sprinkler system, the sprinkler system needs to be pressurized and consumes a certain amount of energy.
4, water retention on the leaf surface is likely to cause mold reproduction.
5. If there is chemical fertilizer in the irrigation water, it will cause leaf surface burns in hot and sunny weather.